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Factor (GM-CSF)
Gene Expresison


GM-CSF is a growth factor and is produced by active cells, amongst which are T cells, macrophages and monocytes. It is a very valuable asset for the recovery process following chemotherapy or in diseases that are characterised by immuno suppression. If there is any long-term increase then it can result in pro-tumour immunological activities. Low quantities can expose the patient to be vulnerable to infections.


GM-CSF belongs to the group of haematopoietic growth factors and is produced by active T cells, monocytes / macrophages, fibroblasts and endothelial cells. It determines the functional characteristics of monocytes and macrophages by promoting their cytotoxicity against tumour cells, micro Organisms and parasites. GM-CSF also promotes the cytotoxicity of neutrophils, activates eosinophils and stimulates the production of IL-1, IL-6, TNF and prostaglandins by monocytes / macrophages. This assay is designed to evaluate the presence of GM-CSF as one of the growth factors which is essential for the development of monocytes / macrophages, Mast Cells, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, platelets and erythrocytes in the blood from their myeloid progenitor that has originated from Stem Cells in the bone marrow.

High GM-CSF quantities are associated with a marked increase of circulating granulocytes and monocytes which is necessary for the acceleration of haematopoietic recovery after chemotherapy, or in diseases characterised by immuno-suppression. However, any long-term increase of GM-CSF quantities can lead to the development of Inflammation and pro-tumour immunological activities. Low quantities indicate an imminent risk of a deficiency of granulocytes and monocytes, leading to a vulnerability from infections.


This assay will provide extremely valuable and accurate information relating to the following pathological conditions :-

- All forms of cancer, Multiple Sclerosis ( MS ) and Parkinsonís disease.
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