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TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS
INDUCING LIGAND (TRAIL)
GENE EXPRESSION

OVERVIEW EXPLANATION

TRAIL is a type of protein that is involved in Apoptosis - the programmed destruction of cells.
The TRAIL protein is a targeted killer of tumour cells but poses no danger to normal cells. Hence, this assay can help to evaluate the process of tumour eradication. High TRAIL concentrations indicate that Cancer Cells are being actively targeted, while abnormally low concentrations suggest a deficiency in this innate element of the bodyís anti-tumour defence system.

This substance is also believed to play a role in maintaining immune equilibrium. Any long-term rise or fall in its quantities, therefore, may also disrupt the normal balance of the Immune System.

DETAILED EXPLANATION

TRAIL or APO-2L is a protein that belongs to a tumour necrosis factor super-family. It is a ligand for a number of Apoptosis-inducing death receptors. TRAIL is constantly produced in small quantities by many types of cells. TRAIL targets tumour cells, preferentially, and is not toxic to normal tissues unlike other members of the tumour necrosis factor super-family (specifically TNF-? and FAS ligand). Normal cells have a natural mechanism of resistance to Apoptosis that is induced by TRAIL. In addition, there is evidence that TRAIL plays an important role in tumour suppression and Immune Cell Homeostasis. This assay is able to assist in the evaluation of the process of Cancer Cell destruction.

High quantities are associated with an active process of cancerous cells destruction. Any long-term high quantities, however, can lead to the destruction of some immunological cells. Very low quantities of TRAIL indicate a risk of the immunological imbalance and the absence of an important natural element in the anti-tumour defence.

APPLICATION

This assay will provide extremely valuable and accurate information relating to the following pathological conditions :-

- Cancer, Multiple Sclerosis ( MS ) and Parkinsonís disease.
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